Introduction to Language.

1: Language: Language is derived from a Latin word “lingua” which means
Definition: Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which
human beings interact to each other. OR
Definition: language is a set of human beings habits, the purpose of which is to
give expression to thought and feelings. OR
Definition: The way of communication is called language.
To cut short, through language we can communicate with each others.
Characteristics of language:
• Language is a social process.
• Sound and signals system.
• Based on social interaction and environment etc.
History of English
Basically English is the language of the people of the England. English language
history starts when three tribes of Germany invaded the Britannia ; the name
of tribes were angles ,Saxons and jutes. They forced the people of Britain to
follow the rules and regulations of them. At that time the language of Britain
people was “Celtics”. They were forced to use the language of Germanic tribes
“Englisc”(now pronounced as English ) and the old English was introduced. It
was the biggest change in the history of English language time line.
➢ Linguistic: The scientific study of a language is called linguistic.
➢ Linguist: One who knows about linguistic is known as linguist

2: Grammar

Origin of grammar
➢ Grammar is not an English word.
It has been derived from a Greek word ‘’Grammatike’’. Here Gram means
something written and ‘’Tike’’ is also derived from ‘’Techne’’ which means Art.
So, grammar means ‘’Art of writing’’.
✓ Other terms are used for grammar
• Grammatical (Latin) grammar philosophy.
• Gramaire (French) grammar learning.
➢ Until the end of 16 century there was only Latin grammar which was
taught in schools of English.
➢ The first Latin grammar was written by Varro ( 116-27 Bc)
➢ The first English grammar was written by William Bullokar. The
name of the book is “Pamphlet for grammar” which was written in
1586 in Latin version.
➢ The English grammar written in Latin was “Grammatica linguae
Anglicanae” which was written by Christopher Cooper in 1885.
➢ In 18 century the first English grammar was “A short introduction to
English Grammar” in 1762 by Robert lowth.
➢ It was during the nineteenth century that modern language studies
became systematized.
Definition: Grammar is the study of the way words are put together in order to
make sentences. OR
Definition: A set of conventions and rules that govern a language. OR
Definition: Grammar is the rules about how to speak and write language.
Definition: English grammar is an art by which we can read, write and speak
English correctly.
➢ Lindley Muray is the father of English grammar

Q: Why do you need to learn grammar?
Ans: we use word to express our thoughts. For example (I am hungry).
Basic Grammar
3: Letter
4: Word
5: Phrase
6: Clause
(simple sentences or independent clause)
(3) Letter or alphabet;
LETTER;- A letter is just a character of alphabet. e,g A,R,C etc.
ALPHABET; Definition: A set of letters in a particular order that are used for
writing a language.
➢ The English alphabet consists of twenty six/26 letters.
Each letter has an upper case (capital letter) and lower case (small letter)
E.g. A,B,C…X.Y.Z (capital letters)
E.g. a,b,c…x,y,z (small letters)
NOTE; (The key difference between letter and alphabet is that letter is a symbol
that represents a sounds in its written form ( e.g A, C) Whereas alphabet is a set
of letters arranged in a fixed order. e.g (A,b,c,.. x,y,z)
➢ Five of the letters in English alphabet are vowels (A,E,I,O,U).
Vowel: A vowel is a particular kind of speech sound made by changing the shape
of upper vocal tract or the area above the tongue.

Consonant: Consonant is a speech sound that articulated with complete or partial
closure of vocal tract. The remaining 21 letters are consonant.
(4) Word:
Definition; A group of letters which gives a complete sense(meaning) is called
word. OR
Definition: A word is the smallest free form found in a language. OR
Definition; A unit of language, consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their
representation, that functions a principle carrier of meaning.
E,g dog, girl etc.
The underlined words give you complete meaning, so these are words.
Gdo, rlgi etc.
The underlined words do not give you complete sense, so these are not words.
(5) Phrase:
Definition; A group of words that make sense but not a complete sense is called
• It is a part of a sentence which helps in making sentence
• They do not have a “ subject” and “ verb”.
o In the forest.
o On the table.
o In the room.
✓ I saw a lion in the forest.
✓ Books are lying on the table.
✓ Students are in the room.

  1. Noun phrase: Definition: A phrase that acts like a noun in the sentence is
    called noun phrase.
    ➢ It contains a noun and other associated words (usually determiners and
    modifiers) which modify the noun.
    ➢ A noun phrase consists of noun as ahead-word and other related words
    (determiners and modifiers) may come before or after the noun.
    ➢ The entire phrase serves as a noun in a sentence.
    Noun phrase: Noun + modifiers (or determiners).
    (i) A women in the car shouted for help.
    (As a noun: subject)
    (ii) Muqadas bought a decent black shirt.
    (As a noun: Object)
    ➢ A sentence can also consists of more then one noun phrase.
    Examples: One of our close relatives bought a beautiful red car. (as a subject &
  2. Prepositional phrase: Definition: A propositional phrase is a group of words
    consisting of preposition and object of preposition (noun or pronoun) is called
    prepositional phrase. It may also contain other modifiers. (e.g near a wall, on a
    table, in the room etc)
    (i) The teacher looked at the black-board.
    (ii) He is sleeping on the carpet.
  3. Adjective phrase: Definition: Adjective phrase is a group of words that acts
    like an adjectives in a sentence. Like an adjective it modifies (adds to meaning
    of) nouns or pronoun.
    ➢ It consists of adjectives, modifiers and other words modifying the noun or

(i) The boy in the shop is my friend. (modifies noun: boy)
(ii) Muqadas bought a beautiful brown chair. (modifies noun: chair)

  1. Adverb phrase: Definition: A phrase that acts as an adverb in a sentence is
    called adverb phrase. Like an adverbs it modifies (add the meaning of) a verb
    or other adverb in the sentence.
    ➢ It contain an adverb and other words (i-e noun, preposition, modifier) which,
    as a whole act as an adverb phrase.
    (i) He drives a car in very high speed. (Modifies verb, drive)
    (ii) She was running very fast. (Modifies verb, run)
  2. Verb phrase: Definition: A verb phrase is a group of main verbs and helping
    verbs. (Auxiliaries) within a sentence.
    (i) They are speaking Urdu.
    (ii) We have taken our annual exam.
    (6) Infinitive phrase: Definition: An infinitive phrase contains an infinitive (to +
    base form of verb) and modifiers or other related words linked to the infinitive.
    ➢ An infinitive phrase will always acts as a noun, an adjective, or adverb in the
    (i) I enjoy to drive car. (as a noun) (Infinitive phrase is used as a noun, the object
    of the transitive verb enjoy)
    (ii) She’s got a ticket to ride. (Infinitive phrase is used as an adjective modifying
    the noun “ticket”)

(iii) To exit, please turn to your lift. (infinitive phrase is used as an adverb,
modifying the verb “turn”)
(7) Gerund phrase: Definition: A gerund phrase is a group of gerund (verb +
ing ), modifiers and other related words linked to gerund.
A Gerund phrase functions as a noun in the sentence.
Examples: (i) I enjoy listening to the music.
(As a noun/as object)
(ii) Crying of baby, disturbed me a lot.
(As a noun/ as subject)
(8) Participle: A participle phrase consists of a present Participle ( verb +ing ),a
past Participle (verb- ending in ed or other form in case of Irregular verbs) and
modifiers or other associated words. A Participle phrase is separated by
commas. It always acts as an adjective in a sentence.
(i) The kids, making a noise, need food.
(modifies kid)
(ii) The table, made of steel, is too expensive.
(Modifies table)
(9) Absolute phrase: Definition; Absolute phrase (also called nominative
phrase) is a group of words including a noun or pronoun and a Participle as
well as any associated modifiers. Absolute phrase modifies (give information
about) the entire sentence.
✓ It resembles a clause but it lacks a true finite verb.

✓ It is separated by comma (,) or a pair of commas from the rest of
(i) He looks sad, his face expressing worry.
(ii) Muqadas is painting for her friend, her shirt dirty with paint.
In this sentence “his face expressing worry” is phrase which gives an
additional information about.
(6) Clause:
Definition; A clause is comprised of a group of words which includes a subject and
a verb. A clause contains only one subject and one verb.
Definition: A group of words that may or may not give a complete sense.
➢ The subject of a clause can be mentioned or hidden but the verb must be
apparent and distinguishable.
NOTE; CLAUSE is a part of a sentence.
(i) I graduated last year. (one clause
(ii) When I come here, I saw him. (two clause sentence)
Types of clause: Clauses are mainly of two types.
1) Independent clause
2) Dependent clause
1) Independent clause: Definition; An independent clause functions on its own to
make meaningful sentence and looks much like a regular sentence.
➢ In sentence two independent clause can be connected by the coordinators.
(for, and, nor, so, but, or, yet)

(i) He is a wise men. (one independent clause)
(ii) Is that a bird or is that plane? (two independent clause)
2) Dependent clause: Definition; A dependent clause cannot function on its own
because it leaves an idea or thought unfinished. It is called subordinate clause.
➢ A dependent clause alone cannot form a complete sentence.
The subordinators do the work of connecting the dependent clause to another
clause to complete the sentence.
Subordinators include relative pronouns, subordinating conjunctions and noun
clause markers.
(i) I know the men who stole the watch.
(ii) If you don’t eat, I won’t go.
Types of Dependent Clause:
There are three types of dependent clause.
(1) Noun clause: Definition; A noun clause is a dependent clause that plays the
role of a subject (noun).
Noun clause begins with words such as ; that , whether, who, why, whom, what,
how, when, whoever, where.
A noun clause can be a subject, an object , or a complement.
a. Whatever you learn will help you.(Noun clause as a subject)
b. What you said made me laugh.(Noun clause as a subject)He knows that he
c. will pass the test.(Noun clause as an object)
d. My command is whatever you wish.(here the noun clause is subject

(2) Adjective clause: Definition; “A dependent clause that functions as an
adjective in a sentence is called adjectives clause “.
It is introduced by relative pronoun (Who, whose, whom, which, that, when,
where, whomever, whoever, whichever) that modifies a noun or pronoun. The
modified noun or pronoun is the antecedent of relative pronoun.
(i) He who come early get the best slice of roast beef.
(ii) One thing that annoys many people is noise.
(iii) The person who was shouting needed help.
(3) Adverb clause: Definition; A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a
sentence is called “.
An Adverb clause like an adverb modifies a verb, adjective clause or other adverb
in a sentence. It modifies (describes) the situation in main clause in term of “time,
frequency(how often), cause, affect, contrast, intensity ( to what extent)”.
The subordinating conjunctions are used for adverb clause are as fellow.
Time: When, whenever, since, until, before, after, while, as by the time, as soon
Cause and effect: because, since, nowthat, as long as, so, so that.
Contrast: although, even, whereas, while, though.
Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing or provided that, in

➢ Don’t go before he comes.
➢ He takes medicine because he is ill.
➢ You are safe as long as you drive carefully.
➢ I will go to school unless it rains.
Definition; A combination of words which gives a complete meaning is called a
sentence. There are various types of sentence depending upon its structure and
function. e.g
➢ Ali is a student of class 6th
➢ I like him.
Parts of Sentence
All sentences need a subject and a verb or predicate .
S+ verb (predicate) +object /complement
Subject: Definition: A subject is the person, place, thing or idea that the sentence
is about, it is what performs the action or it is the agent or doer. e.g
➢ He laughs.
➢ The sun shines.
Verb: Definition; A word that shows(expresses) an actions, occurrence, and states
in a sentence.
o The teacher rings the bell.
o He laughed at the poor.
Object: Definition: The object of a sentence is the person or thing that receives
the action of the verb.

➢ He broke the glass.
➢ He is playing football.
➢ Muqadas is beating Yasir.
Types of object:
(1) Direct object: A word that receive the direct action of a verb.
➢ He threw the ball.
( Here the ” ball ” the direct object.
➢ I gave a gift.
(Here” gift ” is the direct object.)
(2) Indirect object: Indirect object can be in a sentence if there is also a
direct object.
The Indirect object answers the questions “to whom/what?” or “for
whom/ what?” in a sentence.
➢ He gave his girlfriend a kiss.
➢ He gave a gift to her.
Complement: A complement is a word, phrase, or clause that is necessary to
complete the meaning of expression.
➢ Complement adds more information about the subject or subject of
the sentence.
Definition: Complement is a word or words that describes or defines the

➢ The young boy was tall.
( the word” tall” is complement)
Types of Complement:
There are two types of complement.
(1) Subject complement:
Subject complement is a word or a phrase used after a verb that describes
the subject.
The underlined words and phrases in the following sentences are subject
(1) I am hungry.
(2) My sister became a doctor.
The word “hungry” and the phrase “a teacher” that describes the subject of
the verb. Therefore, they are subject complement.
Note: Subject complement is a linking verb to describe the subject.
(2) Object complement: Definition: An object complement comes after the
object a verb and gives us information about the object. The underlined
words and phrases in the following sentences are object complement.
(1) The class made me the monitor.
(2) The teacher found my answer correct.
Note : The key difference between an object and a complement is that
objects are the one for which the verb is applied and complements are the
ones who defines the objects and subjects in a better manner.
A sentence has the following four types.
1) Declarative sentence.
2) Interrogative sentence.
3) Imperative sentence.
4) Exclamatory sentence.
(1) Declarative Sentence:
Definition; A sentence which declares or asserts a statement is called declarative
sentence. It simply announces an idea. It has a plan statement. A declarative
sentence ends with a full-stop mark or a period (.).
➢ They are playing cricket.
➢ We are climbing on the wall.
(2) Interrogative Sentence:
Definition; A sentence that has a question is called interrogative sentence. It has
also called a question-sentence. An interrogative sentence ends with a questionmark. (?).
➢ How are you?
➢ What is your hobby?
➢ Will you help me?
(3) Imperative sentence:
Definition; A sentence which expresses a request, a command or an order is
called imperative sentence. An imperative sentence mostly ends with a period (.).
It can also sometimes ends with an exclamation mark (!) depending upon the
emotion in the sentence.
➢ Turn off the light.
➢ Give me some food.
➢ Please cooperate with me.
➢ Don’t smoke.
➢ Don’t waste your time.
➢ Get out of the room.
(4) Exclamatory Sentence:
Definition; A sentence which expresses strong emotion or feeling is called an
exclamatory sentence. It describes emotions or feeling of joy, anger, sorrow,
surprise, excitement, frustration and appreciation. An exclamatory sentence is
ended with an exclamation mark (!).
➢ Hurrah! We won the race!
(Emotion of joy)
➢ Alas! I lost my purse!
(Emotion sorrow)
➢ What a nice car!
(Emotion of surprise)
➢ Hurrah! I selected for the job!
(Emotion of joy)
➢ How nicely they are dancing!
(Emotion of surprise)
➢ It’s fantastic!
(Emotion of excitement)
➢ How intelligent you are!
(Emotion of surprise)
Types of sentence (On the basis of structure)
There are four types of sentence on the basis of structure.
(1) Simple sentence: Definition: A sentence that (which) consists of one Clause
(Independent Clause) is called a simple sentence.
(A Clause is a group of words that contains One Subject or One Verb).
(i) The girls are playing baseball.
(ii) I am eating my breakfast.
(iii) Is it raining again?
(2) Compound Sentence: Definition: A compound sentences contains two Clauses
joined (Connected) by coordinating conjunctions.
By “Fan boys” (For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) formula one can remember
coordinating conjunctions.
(i) Is that a bird or is it a plane?
(ii) I waited for the train but it was too late.
(iii) It started to rain so we went onside.
(iv) She opened the bag and took out a book.
(3) Complex Sentence: Definition: A complex sentence is a sentence which is
made of one main clause (Independent) and at least one subordinate clause
➢ The dependent clause is introduced by either a subordinate conjunctions or
a relative pronouns such as Who, which, that.
Subordinate Conjunctions: Definition: A conjunction which joins one main clause
(Independent) with one subordinate clause is called subordinate conjunctions.
Subordinate conjunctions are mentioned below;
(After, one, provided that, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever,
whether, while, why, rather, than, since, so that, that, thought, unless although,
as, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to)
Note: When a subordinate clause is placed first in a sentence, use a comma (,)
between the two clause is placed first and the subordinate clause is second,
doesn’t separate the two main clause with comma (,).
(i) When I came, he was eating.
(ii) He was eating, when I came.
Others examples of complex sentence:
(i) Although he was healthy, he was still unhappy.
(ii) I clapped loudly, when my son went up on stage.
(4) Compound – complex sentence:
Definition; This type of sentence contains two independent clauses and at least
one Dependent clause.
(i) My friend invited me to his birthday party, so I want there (compound
sentences) because it was important (Subordinate clause).
(ii) Although officials finally came(Subordinate clause), many students had
already left the auditorium, and the other upset by delay(Compound sentence).

6 thoughts on “Introduction to Language.

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